Handicrafts are preserved in the culture of Iran’s nation; and are one of the traditions of ancient Persia. Each city of Iran has got it’s own unique handicraft. all Iranian handicrafts are very popular among tourists and highly regarded outside Iran. Carpets and Rugs are the most famous handicrafts in Iran; and most people know the country from the beautiful Persian rug. In this article we are going to talk about the art of carpet and rug weaving; so, read the rest!
Iranian rug or carpet, is a heavy textile that people make it for a wide variety of utilitarian and symbolic purposes, in various types.
Persian carpet represent different lines of Iranian tradition and it reflects Iranian history.
The carpets woven in Tabriz, Naeen, Kerman, Qom and Mashhad are the most famous carpets in Iran. And people characterize them by their specific weaving techniques. Also the carpets woven in the 16th century are so famous because of their elaborate colors and artistic design. But the most famous carpets in the history of Iran are Pazyryk and Baharestan.
The carpet is the oldest surviving pile carpet in the world, manufactured in Ancient Persia around 400 BC. The carpet, with 360,000 knots per square meter, is the most important find at “Pazyryk”.
It was deeply frozen in a block of ice at the time of recovery; and that’s the reason it is so well-preserved. Today, they Preserve the carpet at the Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Baharestan or Bahar-e Kasra carpet, also called Farsh-e Zemestani (Winter Carpet), is one of the most famous carpets of ancient Iran. The carpet was 27 meters long and 27 meters wide. The materials of Baharestan carpet were gold, silver, silk, and rare stones. They named the carpet Baharestan, because it depicted a splendid garden akin to paradise.
The rug covered the floor of the great audience hall of Taq kasra. The carpet was too heavy to carry away; and when Ctesiphon fell to the Arabs, they left it behind. When Arabs got to the palace, sadly, they cut the carpet into small pieces and divided it among themselves.
There is no exact information about the origin of carpet weaving. But ancient artifacts and human discoveries, prove that arts such as basket weaving, zillow weaving, jajim and kilim weaving are the prelude to the emergence of carpet weaving.
Each rug has a plan, and to weave a carpet you should go due to your plan. You should usually weave the carpet from one corner. During this process the width of a carpet gradually will be completed, that is called line (Raj in Persian).
Each line is made up of warp and weft. These will create a pattern when the carpet gets complete. At the end of each line, you should tie knots on each of the threads; and also you they should tapped on it with a special tool to strengthen the knot.
This will continue until the end of the carpet texture. When the carpet reaches the size of four fingers, it should be cut with scissors. This will help to take out the extra lint; so that these lints do not stop the newer knots. Cutting the carpet are done with special scissors.
Carpet’s plan has a checkered design. These plans go one centimeter by one centimeter. The map reader, who usually sits next to the weaver and reads the map loud, tells the weaver to use a certain color at a distance of a few knots; and to use a different color a few knots later. After weaving each centimeter in this way, you have to refer to the plan again and use it again for the next ridge or centimeter. Sometimes the carpet weaver reads the plan without any help.
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