Infertility treatment in Iran
Iran ranks first in the region in conducting research on infertility treatment (IVF, IVM, IMSI, ICSI, etc). Over the past years, Iran has made giant strides in fertility treatment studies to become a pioneering country in this field.
Royan Institute, a world-renowned leader in the stem cell and embryology research, is an advanced research and treatment center with many astonishing achievements and developments, providing best paper selection awards and best research achievement awards in many countries throughout the years. The center has managed the first IVF birth (1993) and first frozen embryo birth in Tehran (1996). Infertility treatment in Iran is done.
What is infertility?
Infertility means a couple is not able to become pregnant after 1 year of having regular, unprotected sex. Infertility affects both women and men. A woman is considered infertile if she has tried for 1 year to get pregnant and hasn’t used birth control. A man is considered infertile if he has too few sperm or his sperm are too unhealthy to combine with a woman’s egg.
Symptoms of infertility
The main symptom of infertility is not being able to get pregnant. There may be no other symptoms. For women, if there are symptoms, they are usually related to the cause of infertility.
Certain factors may interfere with getting pregnant. However, these factors do not guarantee you will be infertile. For women, those factors can include: Infertility treatment in Iran is done.
- Painful or irregular periods (menstrual cycle)
- Age (older than 35)
- Endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease (diseases of a woman’s reproductive organs)
- Cancer treatment
For men, factors include:
- A low sperm count (a higher count increases the chance the sperm and egg will meet)
- Problems with your male reproductive organs (such as undescended testicles, enlarged prostate, and varicoceles, or enlarged veins in the skin that surround a man’s testicles)
- Cancer treatment .Infertility treatment in Iran is done.
Your doctor may recommend you be tested for infertility if any of these factors are concerns.
What causes infertility?
Making a baby (getting pregnant) is complex. Multiple things have to go right for both the man and the woman. Therefore, there are many causes of infertility in women and men.
A woman’s fertility can be affected by:
- This is the process by which the egg leaves the ovary and travels to meet the sperm. Some women don’t ovulate every month, which makes it harder to become pregnant.
- Problems with your reproductive system (fallopian tubes, cervix, uterus, ovaries). This might include a blockage, cancerous or noncancerous growths, scarring, enlarged ovaries, or an abnormal opening of the cervix. Fertility treatment in Iran is done.
- Disease and disorders. This might include endometriosis (when uterine tissue grows outside the uterus) or polycystic ovary syndrome (having enlarged ovaries containing fluid-filled sacs).
- Early-onset menopause. This would occur before the age of 40. It may be tied to an immune system disease, cancer treatments, or a genetic syndrome.
- As a woman gets older, it becomes harder to get pregnant.
- Cancer treatments. Radiation and chemotherapy affect fertility.
- Smoking and substance abuse. Smoking, alcohol, and drug use can make it difficult to get pregnant.
- Medicines, especially those treating cancer, fungus, and ulcers.
- Being overweight or underweight can affect fertility. Even too much or too little exercise can affect a woman’s chances of getting pregnant.
- Delayed puberty or absence of a period (menstruation).
- Uncontrolled diabetes, autoimmune diseases (when your body attacks itself), lupus, and celiac disease can make it difficult for a woman to become pregnant
A man’s fertility can be affected by:
- Unhealthy or poorly functioning sperm. This includes the quality of the man’s sperm. It also includes how well and how quickly the sperm move as they travel to meet the egg.
- A varicocele — enlarged veins inside the loose skin that surrounds a man’s testicles. It can cause low sperm count. Fertility treatment in Iran is done.
- This can be a bacterial infection inside the man’s testicles. It can also be a sexually transmitted infection (STI).
- Retrograde ejaculation — a man’s sperm goes into his bladder rather than outside the penis as it is supposed to.
- Autoimmune disorders (when the body attacks itself).
- Cancerous or non-cancerous growths.
- Undescended testicles. One or both of a man’s testicles remain in his abdomen. Testicles are supposed to drop down from the abdomen into the scrotal sac at birth.
- Hormone imbalance. Fertility treatment in Iran is done.
- Blockages within the many tubes that carry a man’s sperm.
- Certain genetic syndromes, such as Down syndrome.
- Medicines, especially those treating cancer, fungus, and ulcers.
- Certain surgeries, including vasectomy (a procedure to prevent sperm from leaving the testicles).
- Smoking and alcohol or drug use.
- Exposure to industrial chemicals and heavy metals.
- Radiation and X-rays.
- Overheating the testicles. This can occur by wearing underwear or pants that are too tight. It can also happen by using a hot tub for extended periods.
Infertility treatment options
In vitro fertilization (IVF)
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a complex series of procedures used to treat fertility or genetic problems and assist with the conception of a child.
During IVF, mature eggs are collected (retrieved) from your ovaries and fertilized by sperm in a lab. Then the fertilized egg (embryo) or eggs are implanted in your uterus. One cycle of IVF takes about two weeks. Fertility treatment in Iran is done.
In Vitro Maturation (IVM)
IVM is an assisted reproductive technology similar to IVF, which involves extracting eggs from the ovaries before the woman is matured. The eggs are matured in the laboratory prior to fertilization. While in the conventional IVF method, eggs are collected when they are mature. In the IVM procedure, the woman doesn’t need to use as many medications and injections as it is used in the IVF method. Infertility treatment in Iran is done.Fertility treatment in Iran is done.
Fertility Preservation by Ovarian Tissue Banking (Ovarian Tissue Freezing)
Ovarian tissue cryopreservation (freezing) is an experimental method of fertility preservation in which the outer layer of an ovary, which contains a large number of immature eggs, is taken out of the body and frozen for future use. In ovarian tissue freezing process, a part of an ovary or a whole ovary is surgically removed, usually by laparoscopy.
In the laboratory, the ovary’s outer layer (called ovarian cortex) is cut into small strips and frozen. An experimental procedure, ovarian tissue freezing is for the most part performed for medically indicated fertility preservation in cancer patients. Infertility treatment in Iran is done.Fertility treatment in Iran is done.
Egg and Sperm Donation
There are many women that don’t have the ability to become pregnant by their own eggs due to various reasons such as chromosomal abnormally, premature ovarian failure, previous disease, early menopause or poor quality of the egg. Egg donation is a process which enables these women to become parents using donated eggs from fertile women during the in vitro fertilization (IVF) process. Infertility treatment in Iran is done. Fertility treatment in Iran is done.
Embryo donation is usually done when a couple have completed their family and have excess embryos. Embryo donation can be recommended for women who have gone through the menopause or for couples having the risk of passing on a genetic disease or are unlikely to become parents using their own eggs or sperm for fertility treatment. Fertility treatment in Iran is done.
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is an assisted reproductive technology which involves injecting a single sperm directly into a mature egg. Once the egg is fertilized, it can be placed in the woman’s uterus. This procedure is mainly used to treat conditions of male infertility, such as low sperm count, vasectomy or low sperm motility.
ICSI may also be recommended if there were problems during previous IVF fertilization processes. Infertility treatment in Iran is done. Fertility treatment in Iran is done.
Intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) uses a more powerful microscope for sperm selection compared to ICSI. This technique enables specialists to observe the sperm in more detail (such as the nucleus containing the sperm’s genetic material); so sperms with better quality can be selected to increase the pregnancy rates in comparison to the conventional ICSI method. Infertility treatment in Iran is done.Fertility treatment in Iran is done.
Intrauterine insemination, also known as IUI, is a process by which sperm is washed and prepared for placement into the uterine cavity, therefore bypassing the cervix and bringing a higher concentration of motile sperm closer to the tubes and ovulated egg. In order to accomplish this, the semen is washed with a solution safe to sperm and eggs, and then centrifuged to separate motile sperm from immotile sperm and other cells.
Those motile and viable sperm are then placed in a very small amount of solution, and then very gently and painlessly injected into the uterine cavity using a very thin, soft, and flexible catheter. At least one open tube is required for IUI, and any sperm abnormality cannot be severe, otherwise the sperm will not be able to swim to and fertilize the egg. Infertility treatment in Iran is done.Fertility treatment in Iran is done.
Ovulation Induction (OI)
Ovulation induction involves medical procedures for treating ovulation-related disorders. Medication is used to stimulate mature follicles development in the ovaries of women who are not able to develop mature follicles regularly. The most common medications used for ovulation induction include clomiphene cirate (clomid), metformin, gonadotropins, and parlodel.
Microdissection TESE (Testicular Sperm Extraction)
Micro dissection or microscopic testicular sperm extraction (TESE) involves surgical procedure to retrieve sperm to use in fertility treatments. This method is used to improve the outcome of sperm retrieval, especially in men with previous unsuccessful sperm retrieval attempts using conventional TESE procedures. Micro dissection TESE is usually recommended for men with non-obstructive azoospermia (abnormal sperm production), which is a common cause of infertility in men. Infertility treatment in Iran is done. fertility treatment in Iran is done.
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a procedure used to detect genetic diseases within embryos. This technique provides the ability to avoid passing on certain genetic disorders to the child, before implantation. PGD is especially used when one or both parents has a certain genetic disorder, to check if the embryo is also affected; while PGS is usually performed when it is assumed that parents don’t have any genetic defects and the embryo is tested for aneuploidy.
Pre-implantation Genetic Screening (PGS)
Pre-implantation Genetic Screening (PGS) involves the removal of one or more cells from an IVF or ICSI embryo to test for Chromosomal abnormalities, which are the main cause of implant embryo failures and miscarriages.
This procedure may be recommended for couples being treated by IVF or ICSI due to fertility issues. PGS provides the ability to avoid having a child at a high risk of having genetic disease, before implantation. infertility treatment in Iran is done. Fertility treatment in Iran is done.
After a thorough history, physical examination, and ultrasound are performed, your doctor may recommend surgery to correct and abnormality. In reproductive medicine, the most common surgical procedures are laparoscopy, hysteroscopy, and abdominal myomectomy (removal of uterine fibroids). infertility treatment in Iran is done.
Laparoscopy is an operation performed in the abdomen or pelvis through small incisions, generally no more than a centimeter, with the assistance of a laparoscope attached to a camera which projects to a screen. It can either be used to inspect and diagnose certain conditions or to surgically correct an abnormality such as removing scar tissue, endometriosis, or a damaged fallopian tube. The procedure is performed in an outpatient setting in the vast majority of cases, and recovery time can be as little as a few days. Fertility treatment in Iran is done.
Hysteroscopy is the inspection of the uterine cavity through the cervix by a hysteroscope attached to a camera which projects to a screen. Through this technique, your physician can diagnose abnormalities such as fibroids or polyps within the uterine cavity, and via narrow instruments that run through the hysterosope, can remove or correct the great majority of these abnormalities.
This procedure is performed in the outpatient setting. Recovery is generally no more than one day. Hysteroscopy can also be combined with laparoscopy when necessary.
Abdominal myomectomy is a surgical procedure performed through a very low horizontal abdominal incision allowing access to the uterus for removal of fibroids. This procedure can, in selected cases, also be performed laparoscopically, often with the assistance of a robot.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]